Associate Professor of Chemistry
Department of Chemistry
Truman State University
Kirksville, MO 63501
(660) 785-4045 (fax)
Find more information (course syllabi, exams, etc.) at Dr.
Kramer's "other" homepage.
- B.A., Oberlin College, Ohio
- Ph.D., Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
- Chemical Principles I
- Chemical Principles II
- Quantitative Analysis
- Instrumental Analysis
- Advanced Analytical Chemistry
My research interests lie in following the fate of various
pollutants in the environment. Currently, we are examining the fate
of pesticides applied to the soil. These compounds include classes
of chemicals that have been shown to be toxic to humans and animals.
When soil samples are analyzed for the presence of organic
contaminants, they are subjected to harsh extraction conditions in
order to find all of the compound that is present in the soil
system. These extractions, while giving useful information about the
total contamination level, do not help identify the risks of
exposure to the chemical when someone is actually exposed to these
soils. When soil is consumed (accidentally or intentionally) not all
of the contaminants present in the soil will be released and able to
cause a physiological response. The portion that is released into
systemic circulation is considered bioavailable. The amount of a
given compound that is bioavailable will depend on the compound, the
soil type and how long the compound has been present in the soil,
among other things.
Traditional exposure assessment tests typically involve animal
models or complex models of the human digestive system. One of the
goals of our research is the development of a simple analytical
method that can be used to model bioavailability. We are currently
investigating the optimization of an aqueous microwave assisted
extraction technique to model a more complex bioavailability method
involving a model of the human digestive system.
In order to understand the aspects of an overall soil system that
contribute to the bioavailability of a compound, we are also
investigating methods of understanding the physical and chemical
interactions between organic contaminants and the soil. Current
methods under investigation include sequential extractions using
increasingly more severe methods in order to study the ease by which
different compounds are removed from the soil.
As bioavailability will depend on the type of soil that is
contaminated, we are studying several different types of soil with
varying amounts and types of inorganic and organic components. In
order to isolate the components of the soil that contribute to the
retention of specific compounds, we are investigating the
development of an artificial soil whose composition can be